- Membership / Join Us
- Store / Online Shop
- Weekly Alert Newsletter
- News Stories & Analysis
- Conference Reports
- Conference Calendar
- Parent Information
- Childcare/ECE Options
- Articles on ECE Services
- Making a Complaint
- Fees, Childcare Subsidy & Funding Rates
- Research Snippets
- ECE Jargon Dictionary
- Feedback Testimonials
- Training for Early Childhood Teaching
Want to know more? Click the button below to get instant access to ChildForum research and answers by becoming a member
30 Hours plus of Childcare Places Children at Risk of Stress-Related Behavioural Problems
An evaluation of a selection of published studies on childcare effects reports that “children who began care early in life and were in care 30 or more hours a week were at increased risk for stress-related behavioral problems”. Source: Arch Paediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2007;161(7), pp. 669-676. Child Care and the Well-being of Children by Robert H. Bradley & Deborah Lowe Vandell
Temporary Higher Childcare Subsidies Result in Long Term Labour Force Participation Particularly of Less Educated Mothers
A Canadian analysis of the effects of licensed providers of childcare services offering childcare spaces at the subsidised fee of $5/day/child for children aged 4 and in successive years younger children and the creation of more childcare spaces, shows that a temporary incentive to mothers to get back to work also produces substantial life-cycle labour supply effects. The results were driven mainly by changes in the labour supply of less educated mothers. Source: Labour Economics, 2009; 16(5) pp. 490-502. Dynamic labour supply effects of childcare subsidies: Evidence from a Canadian natural experiment on low-fee universal child care by Pierre Lefebvre, Philip Merrigan & Matthieu Verstraete
Children's Weight and Childcare Effects
American research suggests greater risk of unwanted weight gain amongst infants sent to early childhood education or in the care of relatives than those who remain under parental supervision. Infants in part-time childcare/ECE gained about 0.4 more pounds over nine months than infants cared for by their parents. And children who were cared for by relatives gained about 0.35 more pounds, were also introduced to solid food early, and were less likely to be breastfed. The authors conclusion was: "Our study results provide new evidence that child care influences both infant feeding practices and risk of overweight at least during infancy." Source: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(7), pp.627-633. Association of Infant Child Care With Infant Feeding Practices and Weight Gain Among US Infants by Juhee Kim and Karen E. Peterson.
Child Obesity Risk Higher for Children Cared For in Some One Else’s Home
Childcare in the first 6 months of life, especially in someone else's home as compared to non-parent care at home or centre-based care, was associated with an increased weight-for-length WFL z score at 1 year and BMI z score at 3 years of age in this American study of 1138 children. Source: PEDIATRICS. 2009; 124(2), pp. 555-562 . Early Child Care and Adiposity at Ages 1 and 3 Years by Sara E. Benjamin, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman and Elsie M. Taveras, et al.
Advised Minimum Standards for Infant Feeding Early Childhood Services
According to American researchers minimum standards are: (1) infants are fed according to a feeding plan from a parent or physician; (2) breastfeeding is supported by the child care facility; (3) no solid food is given before 6 months of age; (4) infants are fed on demand; (5) infants are fed by a consistent caregiver; (6) infants are held while feeding; (7) infants cannot carry or sleep with a bottle; (8) caregivers cannot feed >1 infant at a time; (9) no cow's milk is given to children <12 months of age; (10) whole cow's milk is required for children 12 to 24 months of age; and (11) no solid food is fed in a bottle. Note that in
Use of Part-time Childcare Good for Children’s Weight and Reduced TV Viewing
In this Australian study, the children of mothers who worked part-time watched less television and were less likely to be overweight than children of mothers who were not employed or who worked full-time. The authors conclude that “the combination of direct and indirect relationships between mothers' work hours and the weight status of their young children provides additional support to calls for family-friendly work policies as an important means for promoting healthy family lifestyles and early childhood wellbeing”. Source: Social Science & Medicine 2010; 70(11), pp. 1816-1824. Do working mothers raise couch potato kids? Maternal employment and children's lifestyle behaviours and weight in early childhood by Judith E. Brown , Dorothy H. Broom, Jan M. Nicholson and Michael Bittman
Risk of Respiratory Infection Highest For Children in First Six Months of Childcare and For Children without Siblings
A Danish study found that the first 6 months of enrolment in a childcare facility for children under 12 months was associated with a 69% higher incidence of hospitalizations for acute respiratory infection compared with children not in childcare. Similar figures for children aged 1, 2, and 3 years were 47%, 41%, and 8%, respectively. The incidence decreased after the first 6 months, and after 1 year of childcare the incidence was comparable with that of children who stayed at home. For children under 2 yrs with no additional young children living at home the excess incidence during the first 6 months of enrolment was 100% compared with 25% and 9% for children living with 1 and 2 or more additional children, respectively. Source PEDIATRICS 2006; 118(4), pp. pp. 1439-1446. Population-Based Study of the Impact of Childcare Attendance on Hospitalizations for Acute Respiratory Infections by Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Jan Wohlfahrt, et al.
No Long Term Adverse Health Consequences for Children in Childcare
An evaluation of a selection of published studies on childcare effects reports that “Having contact with 6 or more children increased the likelihood of communicable illnesses and ear infections, although the illnesses had no long-term adverse consequences.” Source: Arch Paediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2007;161(7), pp. 669-676. Child Care and the Well-being of Children by Robert H. Bradley & Deborah Lowe Vandell
Family Influence on Cortisol Levels: Childcare Use Protects Children against Stress
Frequent childcare exposure protects children against the physiological effects of low maternal job role quality and emotional exhaustion. Children in highly expressive or reserved families exhibit higher cortisol levels compared to children in moderately expressive families. Children of mothers reporting low levels of job role quality or high levels of emotional exhaustion have elevated levels of cortisol. Findings underscore the pervasive role of the family within an external support system of childcare. Source: Developmental Psychobiology, 2005, 47. pp. 354-368. Childcare as a stabilizing influence on HPA axis functioning: A re-evaluation of maternal occupational patterns and familial relations by C.C. Chryssanthopoulou, J.M. Turner-Cobb et al.
Not Enough Sleep at Home is One Explanation for Toddler Stress in Childcare Settings
Children with more fragmented sleep at home have higher awakening cortisol levels compared to children with more efficient sleep. Their elevated awakening cortisol levels reflected childcare teachers’ ratings of internalizing behavior and negative emotionality. Source: Developmental Psychobiology 2010; 52 pp. 44-53. Sleep quality, cortisol levels, and behavioral regulation in toddlers by Anat Scher & Wendy A. Hall et al.
Childcare Doesn’t Substantially Increase the Risk for Gastrointestinal Infection
Childcare centre attendance is not a substantial risk factor for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization in most Danish children. Late enrolment and the first short period of enrolment were associated with a slightly increased risk for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization. Children who were enrolled after 18 months of age had a slightly increased risk compared with those who were enrolled before 1 year of age. Source: PEDIATRICS 2008 122( 6), pp. e1168-e1173 Child Care Is not a Substantial Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Infection Hospitalization by Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Lise Geisler Andersen, et al.
Comparing Home and Centre-based Childcare: Research on Children’s Salivary Cortisol Levels
Children in home-based childcare with caregivers who showed less sensitivity had higher total production of salivary cortisol during the day. This was not the case for children in centre-based care, suggesting that other factors may have mediated any effects of caregiver sensitivity. Compared to being at home children had higher cortisol levels at home-homed and centre-based childcare. Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2010. In press. Children's wellbeing and cortisol levels in home-based and center-based childcare by Marleen G. Groeneveld, Harriet J. Vermeer et al
Disadvantaged Children Make as Much Progress as Advantaged Peers in Childcare
A review of recent key studies suggests that the vast majority of recent early education and care programmes have considerable positive short-term effects on children’s outcomes and somewhat smaller long-term effects on cognitive development. Children from socio-economically disadvantaged families made as much or slightly more progress than their more advantaged peers as a result of attending childcare. Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2010, 25(2), pp. 140-165. How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds by Kaspar Burger
Peers Influence Children’s Skills Development
The ability level of the peers in a child's American publicly or privately funded early childhood programme classroom has direct and positive effects on the child's cognitive skills, pre-reading skills, and expressive language skills after controlling for preschool resources, family characteristics, and the child's skills at the beginning of preschool. Neither time spent on discipline, nor contextual effects of class composition, nor teachers’ motivation appear to be the mechanisms that explain the influence that peers have on children's skill development. Source: Economics of Education Review, 2007, 26(1) pp. 100-112 . Do peers influence children's skill development in preschool? by Gary T. Henry
Empirical Research on the Impacts of a New Policy Giving Parents a Childcare Subsidy NOT to Use a Publicly Subsidised Early Childhood Education Centre (1 match)
Unravelling the Costs of Poverty, Strategies to Help Children Educationally Under 5 years, and Policy Choices (1 match)
How Good is the Teaching Children Get in Early Childhood Education? (1 match)
Early Childhood Regulations Not Doing Enough To Protect Children's Health and Teeth, Study Says (1 match)
Non-Parental Childcare and ECE Is Associated with Weight Gain in Children, Increasing the Odds of Becoming Overweight or Obese in the first 10 Years of Life (1 match)