The notion of gender specialisation in production and reproduction has underpinned the economics of the family, welfare state policies and reflects a long tradition. It shaped welfare states along the Breadwinner model, and reinforced the expectations of generations.
By the 21st century women’s role in productive activities has been approaching gender equality, with motherhood being increasingly combined with employment even when children are very young.
This leaves the question of whether women’s economic activities are being achieved at the expense of outcomes for children.
This presentation reviews research looking at longitudinal data linking child development with the employment participation of their mothers during the child’s earliest years.
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