ChildForum Office of Pre-Primary Education

ChildForum Office of Pre-Primary EducationLead advisor on early childhood care and education 
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Early Childhood Regulations Not Doing Enough To Protect Children's Health and Teeth, Study Says

Lax child care are regulations affecting children's health a study says. 

Champaign, Illinois, Sept 2012 - Childcare centre regulations in most states do not uphold the health standards set by the nation’s leading paediatricians’ group, missing opportunities to prevent tooth decay and obesity among millions of the nation’s young children, a recent study says.

On average, state childcare regulations cover only a third of the oral health standards and half of the nutrition standards for early care and education programmes developed by the American Academy of Paediatrics in collaboration with the American Public Health Association and the National Resource Centre for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education.

“Considering the rising rates of both obesity and dental caries among preschool children, childcare can be an important point of intervention in today’s society,” said the study’s lead author, Juhee Kim. “We hope that the findings will prompt childcare providers to develop and implement comprehensive feeding and oral health care policies.”

With nearly 75 percent of US children experiencing regular non-parental day care, federal and state officials have significant opportunities to help safeguard children’s health through programme regulations and policy, according to the researchers.

The standards used for the study were outlined in the 2002 edition of the report “Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programmes.” Kim’s research team compared the standards against regulations for the 50 states and the District of Columbia that were in force from February-April 2010, according to a database maintained by the National Resource Centre.

The study’s focus was prevention of early childhood caries, a virulent form of tooth decay that is on the rise among the nation’s youngest children, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.

The national standards for nutrition – which address infant breast-feeding, meal and snack patterns and children’s intake of fruits, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages, among other issues – also have implications for preventing childhood obesity as well as dental caries.

The third and most recent edition of the standards was issued in July 2010 and contained recommendations for obesity prevention, such as specifying the type and frequency of physical activity for children by age group and using “teachable moments” and learning experiences on appropriate portion sizes.

Of the eight national standards set for children’s oral health, the mean number covered by state regulations was 2.6, the researchers found.

Seven states – Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Maryland, Michigan, Montana and Rhode Island – included none of the oral health guidelines in their childcare regulations. Illinois and West Virginia covered the highest number of oral health standards, with six each.

Children having a toothbrush in childcare settings was mentioned in 39 states’ regulations, the highest response for any of the oral health topics.

However, only 10 states had policies pertaining to the frequency of children’s teeth brushing, but eight of them pertained only to children that were in care at night.

Although the national standards recommend that children undergo oral screenings upon entering or at some time during care, only four states – Massachusetts, Nevada, Pennsylvania and Virginia – and Washington, DC, mentioned or implied oral screenings.

States did somewhat better with adhering to the nutritional standards, with 30 states requiring that menus at childcare centres include fruits and vegetables, although the amounts and types varied. Nearly all of the states had regulations that addressed the frequency of children’s meals and snacks, which varied from two to four hours, depending upon the number of hours that children were in care.

However, eating that frequently without proper oral hygiene contributes to the development of dental caries, the researchers pointed out.

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  • Centre Owner

    Having heard a colleague talk about how useful she had found their material I joined. ChildForum's replies to my queries are prompt, extremely informative & with a genuine personal touch. I am impressed by the commitment to research & courage in tackling the hard issues like the risks of poor quality care for under 2s
    Val Morrison, Centre Owner
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